Sunday, December 19, 2010

Understanding The Mysterious World Of Memristor


<< Fig shows the concept of HP's memristor circuit a mesh of perpendicular wires known as crossbar arrays; in which memristors are sandwiched between the crossing points. 

You may think what is so special about Memristor?
Hmm... I can give you a reason that it can lead to analog circuits that can think like human brain... :)

The concept of Memristor starts nearly 4 decades ago when in the year 1971 Leon Chua (a professor of electrical engineering at the university of California ) postulated the existence of a fourth fundamental element after examining the relationships between charge and flux in capacitor, inductor and resistor. Till that time for nearly 150 years capacitor, inductor and resistors were considered as the three fundamental passive circuit elements.

The 4 element would give the same relationship between charge and flux that is given by a resistor for voltage and current. Such a fundamental element would behave like a resistor whose value would vary according to the current passing through it; but it would be able to remember that value even after the current disappears.

Long since it was theorized no one was able to built it. It became a concept of profound curiosity. But in the year 2008 the researchers of  Hewlett-Packard Stanley Williams and his group revealed that they have discovered the 4th element. "The Memristor". 

         Memresistor crossbar architecture
The architecture of Memresistor is a mesh of perpendicular wires known as crossbar arrays; in which memristors are sandwiched between the crossing points.  

Memristor is a two terminal device whose resistance depends upon the magnitude and polarity of the voltage applied to it and the length of the time for which the voltage has been applied. If you  turn off the voltage the memristor is able to remember the recent resistance until the next time you turn it on whether it is the next day or a year later.. That means if you are working on a spreadsheet on your computer, and you turn it off  without closing the documents you will get it as it is the next time you turn on your computer.

This effect can be duplicated by any circuit combination of  resistor, capacitor and inductor that is why the Memristor is termed as the 4th fundamental element.

                     Stanley Williams (left)

You need to boot your computer as the logic circuits do not hold their bits after the power is turned off. But as Memristor is able to remember its history, the wide application of it would be in non-volatile memories. So a computer driven by memristor won't need a reboot. Hence processing time would reduce with much flexibility in computation.

Overall Memristors can be made extremely small and they can be used to make analog circuits working on the same physical principles as a brain. Such a circuit would even lead to machines that can recognize patterns as humans do, real time data analysis for multiple sensors, intelligent physical infrastructure that can provide structural assessment and so on.


Thursday, December 16, 2010

Autonomous Power Efficient Microchips Generating Its Own Power.

          Solar cell generated within the layers of microchip

Power management and reduction of area required in a microchip are the two most important fields researchers are working upon.
Autonomous chips are created by harvesting solar energy to meet the power supply requirement of the chip by embedding a solar cell separately at its top. 

This type of chips won't require any battery or any other external energy sources. Hence they are very useful in wireless communication and space technology for their power efficiency.
But researchers have now succeeded in finding out a more efficient production process.They used a chip as a base and applied the solar cell to it layer by layer. 

One major advantage of this is that the chip would require fewer materials and hence performance would increase. Also it is highly suitable for industrial serial production.
The prototypes so far constructed showed that the electronics and the solar cell worked perfectly.

Friday, June 18, 2010

10 Best Motivational Songs to Make You Roar.

So many times, it happens too fast, you change your passion for glory. Don't lose your grip on the dreams of the past.You must fight just to keep them alive. A collection of 10 best motivational songs which will drive you, motivate you and make you roar in your difficulties.

Remember: "All the Powers are within You. You can do anything  and everything. So stand up be strong, be bold and know that you are the creator of your own destiny." -Swami Vivekananda

1. Eyes Of The Tiger- Survivor
2. I've Got The Power- Snap
3. Chariots of Fire- Vangelis
4. It's My Life- Bon Jovi
5. The Final Countdown- Europe
6. We are the Champions- Queen
7. The Prayer- Celine Dion & Andrea Bocelli
8. We will Rock You- Queen
9. Affirmation- Savage Garden
10. Here I Am- Bryan Adams

Though it is not related to electronics but sometimes it requires more than knowledge to keep our moral high. I could not resist sharing these songs with you, as this songs are really close to my heart. Whenever I feel low I listen to the songs; to raise my inner self, conquer my challenges. I hope you will like this songs.

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Changing Trends In Nanocircuits

Nanocircuits can be explained as a simple electrical circuit, at a dimension such that the quantum mechanical effects become important to be considered.  It's size ranges within 10-9 meters. The concept of nanocircuits arose when Intel's co-founder Gordon Moore suggested that the number of transistor that can be fabricated on a silicon integrated circuit will double every 18 to 24 months. More the number of transistors, more will be the speed of the computer.

But why should we worry about fabricating a transistor, can't we obtain a similar performance using resistors, capacitors or diodes?

The reason behind this is, transistors can act as a switch and can quickly turn on and turn off, regulating the flow of electricity. They can even amplify a signal ie; transforming a weak signal into strong signal. Most of the transistors we use in a circuit are silicon transistors. But opposite to this, when we are dealing with a nanocircuit silicon transistors cannot be used. It's because the silicon transistor of today are as small as allowed by the laws of physics and the resistivity of the circuit increases when the size shrinks to 30 nanometers.

So, it became a necessity for the Scientist and Engineers to device an alternate way if they wanted to add more functionality and reduce the size at nanoscale. So what they came up with, was a atomic scale wire made of carbon atoms and bonds. They named it Graphene (graphite+ene). Graphene is one atom thick  densely packed carbon atom bonds structured as a honeycomb crystal lattice. (See the above image) They are actually insulating materials but when the temperature is increased they act as conducting material.

Scientist are enthusiastic about graphene as the electrons meet with less resistance when they travel along graphene and also because they are faster and consume less power. Till now nobody knew how to produce graphene nanostructures on such a reproducible method. 

But recently some scientist claim that they have devised a simple one step process based on thermochemical nanolithography (TCNL) for creating nanowires from reduced graphene oxide.

Use of graphene interconnect could facilitate in integrated circuit performance once sizes drops to approximately 20nm. Also the high mobility of carriers in graphene could allow the fabrication of FETs with low channel resistance resulting in a high operational speed. The figure below shows a first ever logic gate and complementary inverter developed on graphene.


Tuesday, June 8, 2010

Apple's Solar Powered Touch Screen

To survive in this competitive world you need to explore new realms of technology, and "Apple" knows it very well. Today one of the major requirement is to cut down power required by a device or to use renewable energy sources.

Engineers from Apple have come up with a concept of Solar powered touch screen and they have filled a patent for the same. Though they have not released a solar powered gadget but their engineers see a wide potential in multitouch devices and believe to embed it in iPhone and iPad. Above is a diagrammatic representation of this concept where a solar cell is placed under a touch screen of hand held devices. 

The patent describes to use the parabolic reflectors as light channels to direct light to the solar cells underneath the touch screen. The solar panel will be designed such that it will absorb light from the top and also from the glass covering the back. But embedding a solar cell into a device and keeping it significant to gadget's cost is more challenging than stating a theory. In theory the solar cell will be able to use indoor lights rather than only direct sunlight. 


Friday, June 4, 2010

Smart Cars Communicating With Traffic Signal.

With the growing numbers of cars on the road, traffic is increasing at an enormous rate. Thus longer will be the time you will have to wait in the traffic signal. But consider a situation where your car need not have to wait, as every time you approach a signal it appears green. WOW! (that's what you will feel)

It's not a hypothetical thought, but with the blending between automotive and electronics industry many such smart cars are being produced. German car company AUDI has made a prototype named Travolution which can talk to traffic signals using LAN and UMTS links interrogating them about the color changing time.

The data sent by the signal is converted into graphics by the system. This then tells the driver what speed to adopt so that the next traffic changes to green before the car reaches it. In the same way if the car is waiting in the red signal the system will tell the driver how much time is left for light to turn green.

These Smart Cars Communicating With Traffic Signals will definitely help to save our time and most important, fuel consumption by 0.02 liter for every traffic signal stop. Though 0.02 may not look bigger but this small figure will help to reduce two million tons of CO2. A great life savior technology for our endangered Earth. What do you think about this technology? Do write to us.

Wednesday, June 2, 2010

Get Inspired.

Dear friends; if you dream of exploring the unknown path of technology but you are scared whether it is feasible or not then here is something inspiring.

Vivek Anand a 3rd year Information Technology student from Govt. Engg Collage Bikaner, and his three other group members had deviced a multi-touch screen technology "Sparsh" which can take 10 commands in a single go. See this video below before you continue reading.....

Back in the year 2008 Anand, and his collage mates Anirudh Sharma, Rahul Motiar and Sudanshu Gautam thought of developing a system which can make computer interaction simpler. They weren't sure of the outcome. But with firm determination, and devotion towards their work, they started the project. And now after two years of persistence their project paper is being published at ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2010 which will held at Germany.

The team also won the first prize in open hardware and best hardware project in IIT Kanpur. There it was also observed by NASA's scientist David Hanson. But their was more glory awating. The project won 20 awards which includes first prize from IIT Delhi, IIT Mumbai, BITS. It was even recommended at  Google Summer of Code.

The technology has a vast area of application including locating landmark, up-link information on cellphone, providing an enhanced multimedia experience, gaming, mapping etc. Riding high with confidence; these boys were also offered by an entrepreneur to put the technology in railway stations.

So, isn't it inspiring! Don't be pushed by your problems, be led by your dream. Because dreams are like the paints of a great artist. Your dreams are your paints, the world is your canvas. Believing, is the brush that converts your dreams into a masterpiece of reality....

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Peering Into Reverse Engineering

Have you ever thought of buying an Ipad or Iphone and tear it down into pieces to peer inside its integrated circuits and processor. No! I know you are not that Einstein. But researchers form chipwork make it their business to find it out. They buy mobile phones, laptops and reverse engineer the hardware, ICs and derive the complete schematic diagram.

Actually the reverse engg. process has long been recognized in semiconductor industry. For example to get a piece of silicon from plastic package, is dipped into a beaker of acid. For ceramic and metal can packages different complicated process are followed. 

So what new reverse engineers found after tearing down Ipad was 16Gbyte memory powered by two Samsung K9LCG08U1M 8Gbyte flash Nand memories; and instead of  Texas Instrument's touch controller do all the touch screen controls as in Iphone 3G they used three- chips as their earlier version of Iphone 2G.

Image: Inside Apple Ipad a)Metal Layers b)Transistor details c)Circuit Layout.

But the most difficult portion is to peer into smaller and delicate designs. With the use of powerful electron microscopes like SEMs (scanning electron microscope) and TEMs (transmission electron microscope) magnification till atomic level is feasible. With the analysis of cross-section and planar section of the layers, images are merged in a software like ICwork and a schematic is obtained.

Image: Schematic obtained of Bootstrap Oscillator circuit from SmartMOS DC/DC converter

But a question still arises whether reverse engg. is legal. In US according to Semiconductor Chip protection act the technique is allowed for the purpose of teaching, analyzing and evaluating the concept. Similar law exists in European Union, Japan and other jurisdiction. But with the growing competitive intelligence people involved in patenting are evolving with new techniques and designs which are hard to debug and reverse engineer.


Saturday, May 1, 2010

Generate Electricity With Every Move You Make Every Step You Take.

Have you ever wondered generating electricity merely by walking over a distance. If not then you will be amazed to know that scientist from Georgia tech University has developed a device which can generate power from body movement.

They have used Piezoelectric materials and drawn them into nanowires that can be woven into cotton shirt or housed into shoe hill. Piezoelectric crystals have a special characteristic that when they are subjected to force or pressure they produce electric signals. Though this electric signals are very weak but by cramming 20,000 nanowires into three square cm area can produce power in millivolt range.

With every move and every step you take pressure is applied on the piezoelectric crystal and electric signal starts flowing through the electrodes. It may not be possible to turn on an electrical appliance but at least atleast cellphones and ipods can be easily charged.

Single nanowires are invisible to naked eyes. Prof Z.L.Wang and his team at Georgia tech are using Zinc Oxide nanowires to built this nano generators. This nanowires are 50 to 200 nanometers in diameter and 5 micron in length. 2 thin electrodes are used and place between this 20,000 nanowires to drive current from it.

This arrangement helps to maximize the electricity produced by piezoelectric crystals. But if the zinc oxide is replaced by Gallium Nitride the power output could increase by 10 times.

If the device is not in constant motion then the nanowires will shut off and no electricity will flow. To rectify this Prof. Wang will develop supercapacitors to store the charge generated by the nanowires. 

Till now only a prototype is made and lots of work is needed to be done. It is likely to take 3-4 years before you can actually get a cloth of nanowires and put the concept into action. Till the time hold on and wait...

Sunday, April 25, 2010

Parameters of Layout Check while Designing a PCB : 2 [ Grid System]

Grid system is basically required to get an accuracy while drawing the hole location of a component. The use of grid gives more convenience in placement of components and conductors on the PCB. It is a general practice to use grid system in layout designing.

By using the grid system in the artwork preparation stage the pads can be placed at exactly the center of the grid intersection. In the modern times the grid system is present in your PCB designing software itself. Using a grid of 100mil is adequate. But if you wanna shrink your PCB then grid of 50mil is also acceptable.

As the design becomes more and more complex finer and finer grids are required. Universal  grid system is based on the 0.05mm unit. For all shape and sizes and for every aspect of the PCB layout grid size should be incremented as the multiple of  5; else routing will be quite difficult.

Want to know more about grid system PCB design org >>

Guide To Conquer Electronics [Resistors]

Resistors are the simplest components of electronics. There's nothing great that you may find difficult to understand. Moreover there are tons of sites on the net that are loaded with the of concept of resistors. But one thing which  I have found similar in all these sites are; they discuss about what the resistors actually are and how we can determine the color codes. But none of them discuss about the different types of resistors and which type of resistor should be used where. 

So I decided to come up with a Guide to Conquer Electronics with an idea to explore the applications of different components of electronics and their types.

While designing a circuit it is very important to maintain proper current and voltage level across different components for proper operation of the circuit. If excess of current is flowing then it can be brought down using resistors. Resistors are available in different ohm ratings and different wattage.

The guide covers all this subjects with a pictorial representation. Pictures will help you for the better identification of the component, its package type, and space required on the PCB.  I hope the Guide to Conquer Electronics will be advantageous  for you in better circuit designing.
If you are unable to understand the concepts of electronics like JFETs, voltage regulators, Ac modeling then we have electronic movies a fully animated program in store for you. Visit EMovies >>


Wednesday, April 21, 2010

Evoulation of Radio Astronomy: The Complete Story.

The age of radio astronomy began from the day when engineers learned to generate radio waves using an electron tube. Approximately after a decade from the discovery two young and dynamic engineers Gregory Breit and Merle Tuve, bounced radio waves off the ionosphere and determined the height of the layers. This proved that radio waves can travel beyond earth and back and they can be used as a probe for communication. 

Two years later a well known American inventor, writer, and magazine publisher Hugo Gernsback popularly known as father of science friction proposed an article "Can We Radio The Planets". The radio waves that can be bounced from the moon and the planets. He also stated that 2.5sec will be required for a radio wave to travel to the moon and back.

In the years of 1930 Karl Guthe Jansky at Bell Telephone Laboratories investigated the noise sources in radio transmission. Jansky used a large directional antenna of 14.6m wavelength which identified three different types of static noise. Noise signal from local thunderstorms, a steadier (ie; firm in position) and weaker static from distant thunderstorm and a weak hiss from unknown source. 

The weak signal from the unknown origin peaked about every 24 hours. Firstly Jansky suspected that this unknown source was sun crossing the view of his directional antenna, but when Jansky compared his observations with the optical astronomical maps, he concluded that the radiation was coming from the Milky Way and it was maximum in the direction of center of galaxy.

But instead of encouraging the research of Jansky; Bell's laboratory rejected Jansky's request to build a 100 foot radio telescope. No other institution followed Jansky's work.

Only after World War II a radio engineer Grote Reber took Jansky's work and continued it as a hobby in his spare time. He built a 31-foot parabolic antenna and in 1937 made the first radio map of the sky. With the intense development of radar technology during the world War II gave a new aid to astronomers. 

A team headed by J.H. De Witt of U.S. Army Signal Corps were succeeded in seeing the echoes of the moon on the cathode ray tube .
From then there was no turning back and in the years of 1940-50 radio astronomy emerged as a new branch of astronomy. A 76m steerable radio telescope was built in England at Jodrell bank in 1957. 

While a 305 meter fixed reflector was completed in Arecibo Puerto Rico in 1963. It is the world's largest radio telescope made till date.


Saturday, April 17, 2010

Parameters of Layout Check while Designing a PCB : 1 [ Layout Scale ]

The layout of a PCB has to incorporate all the information on the board before one can go on to the artwork preparation. Layout check is a concept which clearly defines all the details of the circuit & partly also of final equipment. It is a prerequisite before the actual layout can start.
For a design engineer the parameters to be considered for planning the layout of a circuit includes layout scale, grid system, board types, circuit diagram, component list, layout sketch, artwork preparation, component mounting, layout check, resistance, inductance, and capacitance. Let us see how we can implement this parameters effectively while designing a PCB layout. A series of post will cover every single topic mentioned above.

< Layout scale >
Depending on the accuracy required, artwork should be produced at a 1:1 or 2:1 or even 4:1 scale. The layout is best when prepared on the same scale as artwork. 

If you didn't understand what this means, then consider an example. Suppose your desktop wallpaper's resolution is  1024 x 768. And let us say this resolution signifies a normal ie; 1:1 scale for your desktop. But at the same time you can also zoom the wallpaper to say 1600 x 1200 representing a 2:1 scale. Thus this scale represents nothing but a zoomed version of your artwork.

layout scale

A 2:1 artwork has 4x actual PCB area and a 4:1 artwork has 16x the PCB area. Normally a 1:1 scale is considered while transferring the artwork on the PCB.


Sunday, April 11, 2010

Optimum Package Density of PCB.

Components Package Density
An optimum package density of a printed circuit board results into better electronics performance at a reduced cost and gives the impression of an optimum design. The package density is linked with many constraints.

- Purpose & use of the equipment whether airborne, portable or permanent/ fixed installation.

- Heat produced and cooling provisions that is whether hermetically sealed, natural air flow, forced cooling.

- Types of components on the board; silicon devices have a shorter life, higher the temperature.

- Types of PCB used that is whether single sided, double sided or multilayer PCB.

- Component technology used whether discrete semiconductor, SSI, LSI.

The density of a board can be measured by the number of connections per square inch or the pad count per square inch. Connections between 65 to 120 is considered dense.

Package density is important to be considered in the earlier stages of design process. It is because if the density is very low, more PCB's will be used to realize the same circuit. This will result into more volume of the equipment, more PCB connectors & back panel wiring with more parasitic influences on working Circuit.


Monday, February 15, 2010

Engineering Goes Sexy...

With the new career of Barbie in the year 2010 as a Computer Engineer; engineering also becomes sexy. This will be the 126th career change for world's most famous and favorite doll; after being a Pop star, Photographer, Athlete and so on. In an online poll conducted; Computer Engineer beat out Environmentalist and Architect.

Accessories of Computer Engineer Barbie will include pink glasses, a bluetooth earpiece, a pink laptop, a t-shirt printed with binary numbers and a smart phone.

So dear engineers get your piece of Barbie today :)

Monday, February 8, 2010

Designing a Simple Touch Sensor.

With the development of touch sensors new horizon of sophisticated devices evolved with reduced mechanical parts. This was advantageous in many ways because the weight, size, space requirement and ultimately cost reduced. But before putting this concept into an application, you should be first familiar with the printed design considerations. This post will help you in designing a Simple Capacitor Touch Sensor.

A simple capacitor stores energy between its two conductor plates which are separated by dielectric. But some of energy manages to spill over outside the plate area. This electric field lines are called fringing fields. The concept is to direct this fringing  field into an active sensing area accessible to user.

So the question arises how can this be done? This can be achieved by simply placing a finger near the fringing field which will add conductivity to the surface area of the capacitive system. "Wondering How?" 

The tissue of human body is filled with conductive electrolytes, covered by a layer of skin 'a lossy dielectric.' The conductive property of finger makes capacitive touch sensing possible. the additional charge storage capacity added by the finger is known as finger capacitance.

The fig shows a simple capacitive sensor button. The button diameter is kept as the diameter of the human finger ie; 10mm. The sensor pad is isolated from the ground plane by a uniform gap. The size of the gap is important because if the gap is too small, too much field energy will go directly to ground. But if it is set too large then, it becomes difficult to direct the energy through the overlay. The gap of 5mm works well for 10mm diameter button.

Whenever a finger is present on a capacitor the capacitance is increased. This concept can be put into a number of applications. The figure below shows a charge transfer touch sensor QT113 which requires a common capacitor to function. 

So you can interface the touch sensor with it and design your own system. 


Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Electricity from the DEEP: Generate Energy From Earth's Own Heat.

Now Researchers and Engineers from around the world could help to pave the way of generating electricity that produces no greenhouse emissions, and can prove to be a great source to fulfill the world's energy needs. Geothermal energy has been used by humanity for more than 10,000 years. Romans used this energy to produce heat in their spa and it is still effectively used in Iceland. 

The heat energy comes from the Earth's core, a residual energy from Earth's formation. Everywhere on Earth a few miles below the Earth's surface the bedrock is hot and the deeper we go the hotter it gets. This heat from the bedrock has enormous potential to generate electricity as it is available everywhere on Earth and there might be enough of its availability to supply to Earth's energy need.

Water heated by this bedrock comes naturally over the surface in the form of steam. This steam can now be used to drive a turbine and generate electricity.

But places where naturally heated water is not available; the process can be created by digging a very deep well to inject the water into the ground, and an another nearby well is dig to pump that water back to the surface after it has been created by passing the water via hot rocks...


Monday, January 25, 2010

Call Free From Your Cellphone. Make It SIM Free.

We keep on searching for new plans and tarrif rates to make calls at, lowest possible rates. But from now you will stop searching; as I'm going to give you some really cool trick to unlock your mobile and make it SIM free. This trick basically works for Nokia.
Either you can download this software from or just go to this link and give the details of your IMEI which you can get by dialing *#06# choose network and Nokia model number. Now click on the GET CODE button. And that's all. Enter the Code in your cell and Enjoy.

But remember you will have five chances to enter the code. So go on and enjoy. Do comment after Unlocking.

Saturday, January 23, 2010

Extreme Myths About Microprocessor.

In every single day we come across many intelligent devices that has a microprocessor embedded in it. People get passionate over processors more than RAM or Decoders. Every one has their own favorite processor which they like to recommend others and also to use over and over again. Legend and lore surrounds Microprocessor. Some are true but many are just myths which is believed to be true.

  • Few Processor Choices.
This is the most subtle misconception while designing an embedded system that, we are having a choice of only 10-20 32-bit processors. But the fact is there are 100 different 32bit processors available for sale. This counting is not irrespective of different packages and speed; but dozen of companies make different CPU architecture and instruction sets.

  • Intel Rules The World Of Microprocessors.
For lot of people microprocessor means Intel Pentium. The newspaper proclaims that Intel has a 95% share of microprocessor market. This are all media hypes. Intel Pentium has a dominant share of the PC business. But PC contributes to a very small slice of the Microprocessor pie. 
In 98% of the embedded CPU's Intel is not even in the top 5. ARM vendors alone sell about three times of the Intel sells Pentium.
  • Instruction Sets Don't Matter.
Instruction set affect your assembly codes. We go on using instructions as it is meant. We have never thought of Instruction Sets in this context. Whether you use Java, C/C++ or Ada it is ultimately dumped into the hardware. Performance, predictability and power consumption are heavily dependent on the underlying instruction set.
Let us take an example of multiplying two numbers. This is a very easy job and hardly any programmer will worry. But different chips handle multiplication in different ways. Many RISC chip couldn't even do multiplication. So the early RISC compilers had to synthesize their own integer multiplication function. But  it wasn't fast operation. Now the processors have a built in multiply instruction, but not all multipliers are the same. Some chips can multiply two numbers much faster, than the others and it has nothing to do with clock frequency. 
Figure illustrates this phenomenon:-

Hitachi's SH7604 and SH7708 can multiply 32 numbers in four cycles whereas Motorola's 68020 and 68030 take more than forty cycles to do the same.
  • RISC Is Better Than CISC
Both RISC and CISC have their strength and neither is better all the time. RISC chip provides more code density, smaller memory footprints and more mature software tools. But RISC chips have higher clock rates. So the selection clearly depends on your application.

  • JAVA Chips Are Coming.
Java language was never meant to be handled in hardware. Garbage collection, threads, stack orientation, and object management take a megabyte worth of Java virtual machine to translate into something that even the fastest computer of today struggles to execute. Decades of computer evolution and research in companies and universities around the world has failed to produce any thing like Java machine. But java accelerator chips are available. It executes 30% to 60% of Java Bytes into hardware.
  • Dhrystone-MIPS Are A Useful Benchmark.
To understand what DMIPS are; you will first have to understand what exactly a Dhrystone is.  Dhrystone is a synthetic computing benchmark program which represents the general processor performance. The Dhrystone counts only the program iteration completion per second. When Dhrystone is divided by 1,757 then it is represented as DMIPS.(Dhrystone million instruction per second.)
As the instructions are not same from processor to processor so counting and comparing them is meaningless. For Example a same high level task may require more instructions on a RISC machine but may get execute as a single CISC instruction.  
  • Arm Consumes Lowest Power.
In the early ninety's the arm was one of the first 32 bit processor to be embedded into the ASIC's rather than soldered alongside as a separate chip. It was possible because ARM had no cache, no drivers, no outside bus and not much of an instruction set.
But today, there are plenty of 32 bit processors available as ASIC's core. They use even less power both in standby or when they are active.  
  • Higher The Performance Higher The Price.
Cost it what  it is required to built a chip but price is what marketing department wants it to be. Price is determined by market forces and there is no such relation between price and Performance.


Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Make a Bot out of your Toothbrush.

All that you need for these bot is a toothbrush, a small battery and a pager motor. The rest of the construction is very easy and explained in this video. Making a bot was not that easy earlier. So go on and try it out. Do comment if you liked this post and this small project.


Tuesday, January 12, 2010

Firefox Hacks to Improve your Browsing speed.

If you are reading this post that means you are also a Firefox lover like me. And it's very obvious; a browser with so much of versatility and awesomeness needs to be loved. But in some occasions, it can get a bit slower in loading pages; if you are having 7-8 opened tabs spread across 2-3 windows. Oh! those annoying moments. To save you from annoyance here are some cool Firefox hacks. But before changing the settings, note down the original configuration, so that you can always restore the default if need arises. By changing the settings, you can dramatically improve the page load speed, and reduce the amount of memory Firefox uses for it's Cache when minimized . Even if You have no experience, don't be scared, just follow the simple instructions...

Increase Your Page Load Speed:-
1. Type “about:config” (Avoid Double Quotes) into Firefox Url  and hit Enter. (A warning would be displayed, override it.)

2. Alter the entries as follows: (Double Click on it)
Set “network.http.pipelining” to “true
Set “network.http.proxy.pipelining” to “true
Set “network.http.pipelining.maxrequests” to 

some number like 15. This means it will make 15 requests at once.

3. Lastly, right-click anywhere and select New- > Integer. Name it “nglayout.initialpaint.delay” and set its value to “0“.
(This value is the amount of time the browser waits before it acts on information it receives. If you’re using a broadband or a dial-up connection you’ll load pages faster now.)

4.It's Optional for even faster web browsing.
 you might have to create some of these entries by Right Click – > New– > 

Integer or String network.dns.disableIPv6: set “false
content.notify.backoffcount”: set "5";
plugin.expose_full_path”: set “true”.
“ui.submenuDelay”: set "0".

Reduce The Amount of RAM Firefox Uses For Its Cache:-

1. Type “about:config” (the double quotes should be avoided) in the url of the browser.
2. Find “browser.sessionhistory.max_total_viewer
3. Set it’s value to "0".

Reduce RAM Usage To 10MB When Firefox Is Minimized:

1. Open Firefox and go to the Address Bar. Type in "about:config" and then press Enter.
2. Right Click in the page and select New - > Boolean.
3. In the box that pops up enter “config.trim_on_minimize”. Press Enter.
4. Now select True and then press Enter.

After you are done with this then don't forget to restart Firefox. As I'm a beginner blogger, please please comment and share your love.


Sunday, January 10, 2010

See With Your Tongue.

Wicab.Inc has come up with a new technology named as BrainPort Vision Device; which will help visually impaired persons to see the world around them with the help of their tongue. The device consists of a pair of sunglasses with an embedded camera, a hand held cpu/controller and a panel of electrodes array which sits on the tongue. This extraordinary device will translate the information captured by the tiny video camera into a series of electrical signals which can be felt on tongue.

A large number of nerves ending in the tongue process the impulses into a grainy black and white image. This tactile image is created by presenting the white pixels from the camera as strong simulation, black pixels as no simulation, and the gray level as medium level of simulation.

The control unit is used to zoom in, zoom out and adjust the contrast of the image. The present system uses an array of 100 to 600+ electrodes. This has been able to detect high contrast objects, their movement, location and some aspects of perspective and depth. The current resolution is between 400 to 600 points presented at 30 frames per second.

It was reported that a person started crying when he saw his first letter. The device is not yet for sale. It is currently being tested and after some modifications it will be launched.